14 Jul

Modafinil Manages Sleep Debt

Use Modafinil to Fix your Sleep Debt

Picture this: You just got home from a real late night out with your friends and it’s 4 AM. You need to be up at 6 to be at work by 7, and there’s no calling off. You’re in a pickle, what do you do?

While you probably should have planned your activities more wisely, these things happen. Whether you’re a college student who studies (or partied) ‘til dawn, a parent whose children didn’t stop crying all night, or just a regular human dealing with life emergencies that come up, we all have nights where we don’t sleep as much as we should.

Even our regular sleep is declining. The CDC in the US reported that over 30% of adults get 6 or less hours of sleep a night, below the recommended 7 hours or more.

The result is that more people are experiencing sleep deficit, also known as sleep debt. And studies have proven that sleeping for 6 hours a night for 10 nights in a row (a deficit of 10-20 hours) has the exact same effects as missing a whole night of sleep.

Using Modafinil to Cope with Sleep Debt

The classic advice has always been the obvious advice: Get more sleep! Naps are proven to work, but of course we can’t all be nodding off in the middle of class or work. If you can’t adjust your schedule to allow for more sleeping time, then modafinil is an excellent short-term solution.

A 1999 study showed that when people had been sleep deprived (missing one night’s sleep or more) modafinil restored their performance to near-baseline levels. Interestingly, these subjects had no problems taking naps while on modafinil. It seems that when your body is truly sleep deprived, modafinil won’t interfere with sleeping. 

And even doctors on night shift found modafinil extremely beneficial. A clinical trial in 2012 tested modafinil on doctors who had to work all night. A 200mg dose was given to them towards the end of their shift, and then the doctors took tests that measured their decision making, working memory, and planning abilities around 8 AM, after modafinil had taken effect.

The results were impressive. Placebo participants scored much lower than the modafinil tested doctors.

Why Sleep Debt Matters

The effects of sleep debt are detrimental to society. Car accidents increase greatly as studies show that driving without sleep is just as bad as drink driving. Companies lose productivity as workers cannot perform at their regular levels. Students’ grades suffer. And in the case of professions like doctors or emergency rescue workers, a lack of sleep could literally mean the loss of someone’s life.

While modafinil is useful for combatting sleep debt, it still is no replacement for actual sleep. While you might be able to get away with a day or two without proper shut-eye, don’t make skipping sleeping your routine.

12 Jul

Modafinil is a Diuretic, What you need to know

Modafinil is a Diuretic, it makes you lose water

For most people modafinil presents no serious side effects, and even minor ones are uncommon. However, there is one effect that occurs in the vast majority of people, so much so that it’s not considered a “side effect” but simply a natural part of taking modafinil.

Losing water on modafinil

Modafinil is a diuretic, a compound that causes your body to shed its water weight. Many stimulants have this effect to varying degrees. Other products are made specifically for this purpose, often called “water pills”. You might see these advertised as a way to lose weight quickly, though that is risky and even dangerous behavior.

Modafinil’s Diuretic Effect

Obviously water tends to leave your body in more or less one way: Urination. When you take modafinil, you’ll find that you need to run to the bathroom more frequently than normal. This is a perfectly normal effect, so don’t worry. But you should take some precautions.

How a diuretic works

Your kidneys act as filters for the liquids passing through your body. Whatever doesn’t get absorbed back into the bloodstream gets sent out as urine. Diuretics prevent the kidneys from absorbing sodium, potassium, and sometimes calcium. These three elements are more commonly known as electrolytes, those minerals that sports drinks like Gatorade love to harp on about.

Think about how salt quickly soaks up water. That same process is going on inside your body. If you can’t absorb the salt attached to the water, you’ll need to pass it out. That’s what’s going on when you take modafinil.

Is modafinil bad for your kidneys?

When Provigil was released, the FDA recommended that patients with kidney issues avoid taking it. Your liver does the majority of the processing for modafinil, with only about 10% of it being absorbed in the kidneys. So modafinil shouldn’t cause any damage to your kidneys if they are healthy.

In the kidneys modafinil is turned into modafinil acid as it comes into contact with the electrolytes and water in your kidneys. In people with renal issues this can cause irritation and pain. It also explains why your urine can smell stronger or have a different color when you take modafinil. Interestingly, some ethnicities don’t process this acid as well as others.

Avoid dehydration when you take modafinil

A diuretic can cause you to pass an extra liter of water per day! In response you should increase your water intake. However water alone may not be enough. Keep in mind that you are also losing those electrolytes. A sports drink can replenish those valuable components almost instantly, and so can eating balanced meals.

Going to the bathroom more frequently is a fairly generous offer when you consider modafinil’s potent effects on cognition and concentration.

10 Jul

Provigil Reviews of Long-Term Use

Modafinilimage38

Provigil Reviews

What Is Provigil?

Provigil is the brand name for modafinil, distributed by the Cephalon company. It is used to treat excessive sleepiness in adults brought on by sleep disorders such as narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), or shift work disorder (SWD) by altering the neurotransmitters in the brain. One thing to keep in mind is that it treats symptoms but is not a cure for the sleep disorder itself. Therefore, it is important to continue treatments recommended by your doctor. It may be purchased online without a prescription by other names, although this is a not a safe practice.

 

Provigil is a classified as C-IV and controlled by the federal government via the Federal Drug Administration because of its potential for abuse or dependence.

 

What is it used for?

As stated above, Provigil is used for excessive sleepiness, which can lead to poor work quality, bad judgment, lack of ability or desire to participate in activities, among other things. It also improves memory and is a mood enhancer. In fact, it has gained popularity for treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder because of its enabling effect on concentration. It has also been found in test trials to be effective in treating depressive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. It has been used to treat fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. It can be prescribed to treat both the fatigue and chronic pain of fibromyalgia. Provigil has been helpful in easing symptoms of methamphetamine withdrawal. It is now being used as an experimental drug in treating the lethargy associated with Alzheimer’s disease. It is being tested in the treatment of myotonic dystrophy symptoms. Its use for post-anesthesis grogginess, schizophrenic impairment, spasticity of cerebral palsy, fatigue of Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome, symptoms of fatigue in cancer patients, jet lag, and age-related memory decline are also being investigated.

 

Benefits

The obvious benefit of Provigil is to relieve the drowsiness caused by lack of sleep due to sleep disorders. It is also known as a “smart drug”, thus named because it is very effective Provigil Reviewsin increasing one’s cognitive powers and mental energy. It reduces fatigue, improves memory, increases mental energy, and accelerates cognitive connections. The beauty is that all of this is accomplished without addictive potential.

 

Side Effects

Common side effects of Provigil include headache, back pain, nausea, nervousness and anxiety, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, stuffy nose, and GI distress. More serious side effects are skin rash, blisters, or peeling, mouth sores, trouble swallowing, fever, shortness of breath, leg swelling, dark urine, jaundice, and swelling of lips, tongue, face, or throat. You should seek medical attention immediately if you have suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, aggressiveness, chest pain, or uneven heartbeats.

 

Long term use

One excellent attribute of Provigil is that it does not create dependency. Other than that, very little is known about long-term use. That should be comforting, but it may be that there is just not enough data to determine any long-term detriment.

 

Use in Silicon Valley

Provigil has been termed “the entrepreneur’s drug of choice” since it keeps one awake and able to concentrate for long periods of time without apparent side effects. Given Silicone Valley’s reputation for the workaholic environment, it has lead many to embrace this drug to keep up the expectation of massive production.

 

Proper Use

Always take Provigil exactly as directed by your medical care provider. It is usually taken in the morning to prevent daytime somnolence and can be taken with or without food.

 

Dangers of Provigil

The main danger is most likely the temptation to take Provigil more often than prescribed. Although seen in a small percent of users, there is the possibility of fever, sore throat, rash, easy bruising and bleeding, sores on mouth or lips, chest pain, or irregular heartbeat. If any of these symptoms occur, contact your doctor immediately.

 

Conclusion

As with any other drug, there may be side effects. These can vary greatly from one individual to another. It is wise to keep in mind the possible serious effects and consult a health care provider immediately if you notice any of them. If you experience any unusual condition, it would be wise to advise your doctor. However, as drugs go, there seem to be many benefits and very few side effects in a vast majority of cases.

07 Jul

Has the Psychoactive Substances Act made Modafinil Illegal?

The Psychoactive Substances Act Threatens Modafinil

Alright, this is the biggest news to hit the modafinil market since Cephalon’s patent ran out and generic pills flooded the market. And it’s a doozy. In the past, modafinil was completely legal to import into the UK up to a 90 days’ supply of the drug. This wasn’t just for modafinil, but rather all POMs (prescription only medications). However, since the passage of the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), fear has spread that these imports will be made illegal. As of May 26th the bill is in full effect. Here is the relevant text from the bill.

A person commits an offence if—

(a)the person intentionally imports a substance,

(b)the substance is a psychoactive substance,

(c)the person knows or suspects, or ought to know or suspect, that the substance is a psychoactive substance, and

(d)the person—

(i)intends to consume the psychoactive substance for its psychoactive effects, or

(ii)knows, or is reckless as to whether, the psychoactive substance is likely to be consumed by some other person for its psychoactive effects.

Let’s break this down: (a) restricts the importation of (b) psychoactive substances. Modafinil clearly qualifies. And (i) prohibits this importation with intent to consume. Because, of course, some people just like to store pills in the closet for the inevitable apocalypse.

Modafinil is still legal to import

Breathe a sigh of relief. The same passage of this bill makes a provision for “medical products”. Take a look at the text regarding this:

(1) In these Regulations “medicinal product” means—

(a)any substance or combination of substances presented as having properties of preventing or treating disease in human beings; or

As modafinil is approved in the UK for treating narcolepsy, modafinil qualifies as a medical product.

Okay, so things are looking good. But there’s one more issue to address. The PSA bill still respects the UK’s list of controlled substances, originally formed in 1971.

But modafinil has never been added to this list, making it legal to import for personal use.

Possession may now be illegal

The PSA bill gives the police considerable power to punish possession of psychoactive substances, including fines and a possible 1-year prison sentence for first time offenses. The bill was designed to target “designer drugs” or “legal highs”, in other words psychoactive substances that hadn’t been classified as illegal drugs yet. As a result, possession of anything psychoactive could be considered illegal.

What this means is that modafinil users should be cautious about keeping spare pills on their person when travelling in the UK. An arrest or a police stop for another reason could turn into an ugly ordeal.

Since modafinil is generally effective for the whole day, you probably don’t need to be carrying pills with you wherever you go. Best to play it safe given this new legislation.

29 Jun

Will Smart Drugs Change the World?

Will Smart Drugs like Modafinil Change the World?

When computers began to appear in the workplace, people imagined a world where your 8 hours of work could be done in just one or two, and we would live in a utopia with free time to spend on whatever we wanted. We got the work done faster, but that just meant that we were more productive. Companies squeezed more out of us and with the internet global GDP soared.

Smart drugs present a similar possibility: Could they change our working world?

What could smart drugs change about us?

Smart drugs like modafinil have the potential to increase our cognitive abilities. As recent studies have shown, modafinil is completely safe and DOES in fact improve your mental processes. Also, considering that modafinil sharpens your focus, you can get more done in less time.

I see this in my daily life as I use modafinil. When I have to make a complicated Excel chart I get more done in less time, and the work is of higher quality because I focus on details and produce a more perfect product. Same goes for reviewing documents in the office. I can stare at a stack of papers and not feel the dread I normally do, and I get distracted less frequently.

So modafinil, and perhaps other smart drugs still to come, could make us more productive.

What happens when smart drugs make us productive?

Historically speaking, whenever workers are made more productive by technology, employers still expect them to work the same amount of hours. Farmers with large tractors simply cleared more land than before, instead of clearing the same amount and taking a nap. Factory workers produced more parts with machines than by hand, but still put in an 8 hour shift. And you now can communicate instantly with the internet, instead of phone calls and answering letters with a typewriter. So you communicate more.

In fact, technology has increased our working hours as more people can take their work home with them.

The trend would likely continue: Companies will expect you to become more productive as you show that you can consistently produce more in less time.

How would this happen?

I don’t want to scare you with a portrait of a dystopia where companies hand out pills every morning. This isn’t Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World. Instead, I think the competition would come from one another. We already see this in universities: Students compete for the top position in their class and turn to smart drugs to give them an advantage.

And we see this in sports every day, just look at the MLB steroid scandals of the 90s. Players took steroids because other players took them. They needed to compete.

What happens when this generation of smart drug users enters the workplace? Will they stop looking for an advantage? Probably not.

And now you can easily imagine a world in which we all need to take a pill just to stay competitive and avoid being made redundant.

Will Modafinil Change how we Work?

In some fields, we might see modafinil being taken like candy. The lawyer who has to pore over documents would benefit, as would the entrepreneur. A programmer who can stay up all night would have an advantage too. But creative jobs probably won’t be taking modafinil any time soon as there are no reports of modafinil stimulating creativity.

So the answer depends on your line of work. See what your co-workers are doing. And if nobody is doing yet, maybe you should start the trend.

27 Jun

Can you Overdose on Modafinil

Can you overdose on Modafinil?

The internet is chock full of reports of users trying more than the daily recommended amount of modafinil. 200mg is the approved dosage for regular use, but many people have reported trying 400mg or even more. The question is, is this dangerous and at what point could you overdose? The FDA’s complete report on modafinil gives us the answers.

What is an overdose?

An overdose is simply when too much of something is consumed, and this results in unpleasant physical effects that can be dangerous or even life-threatening. Many common medications can actually be quite dangerous in large quantities, for instance acetaminophen (Tylenol) can cause liver damage with doses of up to 4000mg. Take 12,000mg, and you’ll likely die of liver failure.

You can even die from drinking too much water! So overdose is always possible. However, if you use common sense you shouldn’t have any issues.

LD50 and Overdose

The LD50 is the “lethal dose 50% of the time” in an animal or a human. Companies have to find the LD50 for their product, and they usually use rats for this since they have similar metabolisms to people. An LD50 is measured in mg/kg, that is, milligrams of the medicine per kilogram of body weight. So an LD50 of 10mg/kg would mean that a person who weighs 50kg would reach the LD50 after taking 500mg.

How much to Overdose on Modafinil?

The good news is that modafinil is very well tolerated in individuals and so far there have not been any cases of overdose in humans. The amount needed to kill a rat is well over 1,000mg/kg. The average person weighs about 80kg, meaning that they would need to take 80,000mg/kg to die. That’s over 400 pills! I think it’s safe to say that there’s no risk of dying due to accidental, or even intentional modafinil use.

But an overdose is possible without extreme consequences. There was an instance of a 3-year-old child taking 4 or 5 pills, over 50mg/kg! He was fine, just extremely hyper for a while.

In adults there were two cases where 20 pills (4000mg+) were taken at once! The patients reported feeling very uncomfortable and unable to relax at all. However, aside from the temporary mental side effects, they were fine physically and returned to normal after a couple of days.

Are large doses safe then?

While you probably shouldn’t take 20 pills at once (not to mention it’d be quite expensive if you did) the risk of an overdose is generally very low. Clinical trials have tested doses of 800mg-1200mg in adults with no serious side-effects or overdose situations. It seems that taking these larger doses of modafinil increases the chance of minor side effects, such as headaches or nausea. But the patients took these doses regularly and had no long-term issues.

So if you want to try a larger dose, go ahead. But keep it reasonable, and definitely don’t give children larger doses. Overdosing on modafinil is nearly impossible, but it can happen if you are careless.

22 Jun

Modafinil’s Effects on Cognition now Officially Proven

Modafinil’s soaring popularity is due to its “off-label” use to improve cognition, where qualities such as alertness and concentration are useful for things like exam preparation.  Past studies on sleep-deprived individuals demonstrated a strong positive effect on these functions, but there has been less attention and scientific consensus on the drug’s overall effectiveness as a cognitive enhancer in people that are not sleep-deprived.

Now, a new systematic review, published online in the peer-reviewed journal European Neuropsychopharmacology shows that modafinil does indeed confer significant cognitive benefits.

The Study

Doctors Ruairidh Battleday and Anna-Katharine Brem from the University of Oxford and Harvard Medical School evaluated all available research papers on cognitive enhancement with modafinil from January 1990 to December 2014. 24 of these dealt with cognitive benefits associated with taking modafinil, including planning, flexibility, learning, memory, decision making, and creativity.

The results were dependent on the task. It showed that the longer the task and the more complex it was, the more consistently modafinil conferred cognitive benefits. Decision-making and planning improved the most. Better yet, 70% of the studies showed minimal negative effects.

New Information

According to Dr. Battleday, this is the first overview of modafinil’s actions in non-sleep-deprived individuals since 2008, and in those 7 years heaps of new data became available. But it’s not just new data. The testing used to be very basic, developed for neurologically-impaired individuals. In contrast, recent studies have begun to use more complex tests and when they are used it appears modafinil more reliably enhances cognition. Good news for those hard exams

The Results

Two main conclusions stand out: First, in the face of few side effects in these controlled environments, modafinil can be considered a safe cognitive enhancer; Second, we need to continue testing normal or even supra-normal cognition in a reliable manner.

Professor Guy Goodwin, President of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, added that “modafinil may well deserve the title of the first well-validated pharmaceutical nootropic agent.” In other words, it’s the first real example of a ‘smart drug’, which can genuinely help people in their regular lives.

Ethical Considerations

It seems to be so efficient at what it does that some researchers have questioned if it is really fair for someone to have that advantage when taking an exam. Others have made the point that whether we like it or not this is going to eventually make its way into the workplace due to its efficiency and safety, it is all really just a matter of time. And as we’ve discussed here before, modafinil can’t really be considered cheating.

So break open your blister packs, it’s time to celebrate the good news: Modafinil is officially the first real, proven smart drug.

19 Jun

Modafinil: The Pill that Powers your Military

Modafinil isn’t just for civilians anymore, it is also the pill that is powering militaries all over the world. A growing number of countries use modafinil as a way to help soldiers stay awake to go beyond their limits. It’s especially helpful for pilots who must endure long flight missions without falling asleep. Military research divisions are leaving behind amphetamines, used since World War 2. This research is being openly sponsored and supervised by military agencies in more than 9 different countries.

Military research leaders

The United States is leading the pack in this research, conducting experiments through the Air Force Research Laboratory, Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and Special Operations Command Biomedical Initiative Steering Committee. That is just in the USA alone, there are many more putting in their effort to help push modafinil to its limits and give their soldiers an almost superhuman edge.

Canada has done its fair share of research at Defense Research and Development Canada. Asia is in on the action as well: China’s Second Military Medical University, South Korea’s Air Force Academy, Taiwan’s National Defense Medical Center, and the Bioengineering Laboratory of Singapore’s Defense Medical and Environmental Research Institute. India is also playing its part investigating modafinil through its Institute of Aerospace Medicine and Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences.

In Europe, France’s research program includes its Ministry of Defense, Military Health Service Research Center, and Institute of Aerospace Medicine. The Netherlands Ministry of Defense is also probing modafinil. The UK and other EU countries are actively using modafinil, providing valuable field data. And this is only the public research that has been published so far, there will be so much more in the near future that will surely leave us in awe.

Modafinil’s military applications

Some of the publicly reported studies thus far have tested modafinil in Black Hawk helicopter pilots, F-117 fighter pilots, French paratroopers, and Canadian reservists, among others. They’ve simulated A-6 Intruder bombing missions, AWACS flights, and French Navy patrols. In nearly every trial, modafinil has extended the ability to function without sleep. And we’re already using it in the field. The United States has given modafinil to Air Force personnel since the 2003 Iraq invasion. By 2004, the British Ministry of Defense had bought 24,000 tablets. By 2007, France was routinely supplying it to fighter pilots.

But why is all of this so important to these militaries? It is because of the urgency, one far greater than any other agency would have. For an airline a missed flight could just mean a small financial loss, but to the air force this could mean life or death. They are also more likely to need to be alert and vigilant during a mission and need to be able to perform at 100%.

Not a new concept, but a new solution

Militaries have been using stimulants for their soldiers for centuries. The British years ago would use tea as a way to try to stay awake and alert due to the caffeine found in it. Prussians went even further, using cocaine to power their soldiers. World War II is when both sides began to use amphetamines, which were highly effective, yet not ideal for soldiers’ health. The strong effects of these “go pills” had to be counteracted by “stop pills” which, as their name implies, helped relax soldiers afterwards. Amphetamines are still in use around the world, but governments recognize the harmful effects. Modafinil’s safety and effectiveness explain why so many countries are adopting it and publicly sponsoring that research.

10 Jun

Starting a Business with Modafinil

It’s everybody’s dream: Owning your own business, being your own boss, not having to answer to anybody but yourself and your desires. As great as it sounds few people ever actually take a chance and try to launch their own company. A recent Forbes article showed that 13% of US citizens were involved in a start-up, but that does not mean they were the owners.

If the vast majority of people want to have their own business, then why don’t they try? While many have tried and failed the number of people who haven’t tried at all is staggering in comparison. Perhaps the biggest reason is simply a lack of opportunity. Most people assume that businesses are expensive to start, but in reality many businesses can be started for a few thousand pounds. No, the biggest obstacle to the would-be entrepreneur isn’t money or ideas, it’s time.

Businesses typically take at least a year, perhaps two to reach the point of profitability where the owner can afford to take a full salary from the business and live comfortably. This means that for most start-ups the owner either has cash saved up or has another job to support himself while the business grows. Most of us are already exhausted by our 9 to 5 plus commute, now imagine adding a completely new experience on top of that. That part-time business on top of your existing responsibilities can mean that you end up ineffective on everything that you do.

What starting a business looks like

To get a better picture of how modafinil can help an entrepreneur let’s imagine we have a single person with a regular work schedule that ends at 5 PM. Normally our ambitious individual would have woken up at 8 to be at work by 9, but now with the new business demands she wakes up at 6 to make a batch of her specialty soap.

After working all day he finds himself sleepy since he woke up two hours earlier, but he still needs to go and try to sell some of his latest product to local vendors before they close in the evening. Unfortunately lacking energy his sales pitch doesn’t have the same impact as it might have otherwise and the products will stay on his kitchen shelf.

She gets home at 9 and falls asleep on the couch watching TV with a bowl of ramen. The lack of a good meal will affect her tomorrow as she tries yet again to make some more sales and produce a better product for her potential customers.

Starting a business, now with modafinil

Let’s run through this scenario one more time. First, our future star wakes up and takes 100mg of modafinil, half a pill, first thing out of bed. By the time she’s warming up the stovetop the effects are kicking in. She pays careful attention to her work and the soap she makes today is particularly good. She writes down the changes to her method to copy tomorrow.

Work is a little busier than usual: more customer complaints to sift through. But because of modafinil our guy is able to get into a nice rhythm and avoid distractions, finishing off a stack of papers in half the time it would have normally taken. He gets to have a longer lunch as a result. Before he eats it though he takes the other half of his morning’s pill, ready to recharge for the second half of the day.

Work is done, and now it’s time to sell. With added intensity and a well-rehearsed speech she finally nails down a potentially big customer and gets her product stocked into a local boutique shop. She comes home and prepares something decent to eat. As the modafinil wears off she decides to spend a little extra time on the label to make it more presentable in stores. This morning’s batch is ready to be packaged and she’s confident it’ll be a hit tomorrow.

Starting a business can be easier with modafinil

Modafinil isn’t going to give you the brilliant idea that you need to become a successful entrepreneur, and it won’t magically put money in your pocket to start your businesses. All it can do is help you to maximize your time and use your energy better. Since time is one of the most critical resources for start-ups, modafinil can be a huge boon to someone trying to start their own business. If you’ve ever had the dream but have yet to give it a try, maybe the little white pill is all you need.

 

 

07 Jun

What is the Best Dosage of Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam Dosage

What is Pramiracetam

A nootropic is a smart drug that has brain boosting and cognitive enhancing elements. Pramiracetam is a nootropic supplement that was developed in the 1970’s by scientists at Parker Davis. It is said to be one of the most powerful of the racetams. It was patented in 1978; the patent expired in 1996. The company Menarini markets pramiracetam under the brand name Pramistar. It is an over the counter smart drug that does not require a prescription.

Benefits

Increases mental performance

Increases intelligence

Improves memory

Improves the ability to learn

Improves and increases concentration levels

Can increase energy levels

Improves clarity of thought

Improves focus

Can be used as part of a treatment plan for memory and attention deficits in aging people with neurodegenerative and vascular dementia.

Dosage

It is recommended to take pramiracetam be taken with food, milk or fish. The maximum recommended daily dose is 1200 mg. It is recommended to take pramiracetam 400 mg three times a day or 600 mg two times a day.

Side Effects

Pramiracetam has very few side effects and no significant side effects have been shown to result from short term or long term use. However, it may cause headaches, anxiety, fatigue and nervousness.

Long-term Use

Pramiracetam can increase long-term memory function, a better attention span, an anxietyincrease in cognitive abilities, a greater clarity of life and a better long-term outlook. It increases brain health, as well as increased verbal fluidity, increased vocabulary and a better flow in conversations all around. Other long term effects are to feel more awake, more alive and more intelligent. It has also been said to increase brain health in people with brain injuries. People have said they experienced a surge of creativity, as well as reasoning. No adverse long-term effects have been found.

Short-term Use

Pramiracetam can increase memory, focus, motivation and brain health. Short term use will only result in subtle effects. The longer you use it, the more prominent the results will be. It may take a few weeks to notice enhancements. No adverse effects have been found from short-term use.

Megadosing

While small doses of pramiracetam do not have these effects, high doses, or megadosing, can increase nitric oxide levels in the brain.

Research

In 2004, a study found that Pramiracetam could be five to ten times stronger than Piracetam. A study performed in 1994 shows pramiracetam was able to partially reduce amnesic effects in young and old. More information on this study can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15374306. A 1999 study showed significant improvement of memory and cognition in males who had sustained brain injuries. The study lasted 18 months while taking pramiracetam, as did the effects. A month after discontinuing use, the effects had not changed.

Details on this study can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1786500. In 1985, a study was performed to check the pharmacokinetics of Pramiracetam. The conclusion was there were no significant side effects from use of any dosage. More information can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4008675. Information can be found at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00174378?LI=true regarding a study that showed an improvement in memory performance. Another study from 1985 that showed an increase in cognitive function from pramiracetam use can be found at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/002432058590311X.

Why Use Pramiracetam?

Anyone can take pramiracetam. There are many benefits of adding pramiracetam to your daily regimen, but very few side effects. If you have sustained a brain injury, pramiracetam may help with memory, cognition and brain health. For elderly people with memory issues, pramiracetam may help to improve memory and attention deficits. If you experience difficulty remembering things, or just need to increase your focus and attention span, you should use pramiracetam. Some professionals also use pramiracetam for its brain and memory boosting effects.