25 Dec

Modafinil Makes you Smarter by Improving Cognitive Functions

For several years claims have surfaced reporting that modafinil will make you smarter, learn faster, and improve your focus and attention. A stern debate has evolved, with some sides claiming that modafinil makes no difference and that any gains are simply a result of the placebo effect, and others upholding the statement that modafinil will make you smarter, in a sense.

Fortunately this year a major review of several clinical trials has been released. It thoroughly examined 24 studies from the past 12 years, and gathered up all of their findings under one roof. Peer review is an excellent way to make sense of all of these complicated experiments, and at last we can put the topic to rest.

We’re going to look at three areas that are often cited as improved by modafinil: Memory, Executive Function, and Attention.

Modafinil Makes you Smarter: Memory

Memory is complex, but it’s imperative to learning. If you can’t remember what you saw in your last class, then how will you build on that in the next one? Long-term memory on modafinil has not been investigated, but it has been shown to improve short-term memory, which eventually will become a long-term memory if it’s used again.

Multiple studies looked at both verbal and non-verbal short-term memory. Why is the difference important? Verbal information is processed and retained in different parts of the brain, and therefore they can be affected differently by modafinil. Much of your speech processing is localized in the left side of the brain, which modafinil tends to excite. Non-verbal information might be related to remembering a phone number that somebody wrote down for you, while verbal information could be compared to remembering your girlfriend’s birthday after she tells you for the hundredth time.

In both cases modafinil showed an improvement in performance, although there were in some instances slight increases in response time, meaning that it took modafinil users a split-second longer to connect the dots and recall the information. That drawback is negligible compared to the performance gains seen on the tests. While some studies showed no improvement, the majority did and none revealed negative results.

Modafinil Makes you Smarter: Executive Function

“Executive functions mediate the selection and manipulation of incoming information, use of that information to construct and initiate action plans, and enlistment of other cognitive functions and brain regions into complex task-oriented networks (Diamond, 2013).”

The frontal lobe is where most of our executive function takes place. Much as its name implies, executive function is similar to the job of a CEO, and your CEO’s office is the frontal lobe of your brain. The frontal lobe takes data from all of your senses, makes sense of them, and formulates a plan to deal with that situation. In addition the area checks with your memories and imagines possible outcomes for any given scenario. In short, all of your decisions are made here.

Modafinil was found to provide two benefits in this regard: Inhibitory Control, and Fluid Intelligence. Inhibitory control is basically your brain’s way of discarding or ignoring information. If your frontal lobe is working well, it’ll quickly throw away whatever information doesn’t help form a good conclusion. This is great for when you’re studying, because it means that as you read your material you’ll be able to sort through it faster and find what you’re looking for without getting confused by other data.

“Fluid intelligence is the ability to cope with novelty, to think rapidly and flexibly, and to see relations amongst items independent of acquired knowledge, and is predictive of life outcomes such as income, performance at work, and health (Au et al., 2014, Sternberg et al., 2013).”

This right here is the most impressive improvement modafinil made. Studies have consistently shown that one’s fluid intelligence, or in other words your ability to intelligently navigate ever-changing circumstances (that flow, like a fluid), is indicative of your success in life. Life is constantly raining down new problems for us to manage, and having the ability to see through the blurry windscreen and arrive to your destination is essential. Modafinil users exceeded their non-modafinil counterparts in several portions of the test.

Modafinil (doesn’t) make you smarter: Attention

Hold on, could it be that modafinil’s most famous feature, powerful focus and attention, is all a myth? The same study explained attention as the combination of three factors:

  1. Selective attention– the ability to detect specific stimuli within an environment containing distractors
  2. Sustained attention– the maintenance of a consistent behavioural response during continuous or repetitive activity
  3. Divided attention– the ability to allocate cognitive resources to two or more stimulus features or separate tasks

The study found that none of these were consistently improved. In each case a single study or two found positive results, but the overwhelming majority of the 24 in question proved negative.

However another attribute of attention is alertness, which can be considered as your sensitivity to an outside stimulus. In this case, modafinil did improve alertness as subjects were more responsive to stimuli.

Apparently modafinil is not really improving attention so much as it improves the mind’s ability to sort through information (the inhibitory control mentioned above.)

So does modafinil make you smarter?

In a word, yes. It will improve your cognitive functions while on modafinil, as well as enhance your short-term memory. But do not expect permanent gains as these boosts are only temporary when using modafinil. The conclusions of this study reported that more standardized methods are needed to really be able to quantify this data, so hopefully we’ll have more news for you soon.

19 Dec

Modafinil in the News

Modafinil in the News

Modafinil.co.uk periodically brings you the latest news stories regarding modafinil. This time around we have a pair of polarizing articles on modafinil.

Can you be Limitless with Modafinil? (CBS News)

The first of these comes from CBS’s New York affiliate, boldly comparing modafinil to the drug from the hit movie and now television series “Limitless”. CBS’s reporters discussed the pill with several experts who suggested that there is no strict increase in intelligence with modafinil, rather the medicine makes accessing that brain power easier.
Undoubtedly this article is a pseudo-advertisement for CBS’s own aforementioned program, hence the multiple references to the title “Limitless” in the article and an internal link. Still, it provokes one of the important debates regarding modafinil: Does it actually make you smarter? That’s a topic we’ll tackle another time. Regardless, seeing a mainstream media outlet from a major city report on modafinil is indicative of its growing popularity.

Banned from Sport for Modafinil (The Guardian)

The Guardian has brought up modafinil in a less positive light. Two of the UK’s top rowers were drug tested after their performance in an international competition in Belgium. One of the two failed his test for modafinil which is a banned substance in the rowing community.

Why is modafinil banned in many sports circles? This is largely due to the perception that modafinil could increase a person’s stamina or focus beyond the normal levels seen in the sport. Whether or not this is entirely true has yet to be seen as no serious clinical trials have examined modafinil’s direct effects on athletes in the field. However, many major sports leagues have declared the substance taboo with serious penalties for non-compliance.

And it’s not the first high-profile case either. Kelli White, a star female US sprinter, was handed a 2-year ban for modafinil, amongst other substances. Her record breaking runs were wiped out, and her career stagnated shortly after.
Athletes need to be extremely focused mentally, regardless of the sport they’re a part of. Given that competition is so fierce at the national level, it’s no surprise that some athletes seek out an edge over their opponents. Does it work? The few players who’ve been banned for modafinil were on the top of their game at the time.

The Cure for Laziness (Inverse)

This article by Inverse proposes widespread use of pharmaceuticals such as modafinil with an aim at ending chronic laziness. It even goes as far as to point out the glaring contradiction between caffeine’s acceptance and the stigma surrounding “doping”. Why is one okay and the other not? The article brought up a great point: Self-medication is as old as time and has taken many forms. Substances like modafinil are just the latest chapter in a long history book.

Modafinil and its ilk raise several important questions for ethics and humanity’s future. That might seem like hyperbole, but when you stop and consider the rapid advancements in medical science, the present-day realities of bionics, and ongoing research into integration between man and machine, we have to ask ourselves how far we are going to go to make our bodies and brains better. I for one welcome our pharmaceutical overlords.

That’s all for now. Keep checking in for more modafinil news stories and the latest information and updates worldwide.

17 Dec

Provigil in the US Military

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Provigil in the US Military

Provigil?

In the movies, we see superhuman soldiers fighting off alien threats and we are enthralled by the idea of becoming such a person. Well, reality has caught up with the movies. The military has been experimenting with various means to expand the capabilities of their troops, pilots, and sailors to give them an edge over the opposition and the drug Pro vigil is but one of the myriads of ways they are attempting to create the War Fighter of the future.

 

The drug allows you to stay awake and provides you with the ability to focus and perform at a level that is unheard of. Students in schools in the EU, Asian, and here have heard about the drug and are using it in record numbers to enable them to cram for exams and burn the midnight oil.

 

Today, we will exam Provigil and let you look behind the hype and myth and see if the drug can be of use to you in your life.

Modafinilimage38

Today military pilots use it to stay alert flying over dangerous territory and even militants have started using it in foreign nations.

 

Lawyers, 5th Ave Ad gurus, and Wall Street market savants are using it as well. This gives them all almost superhuman concentration and the ability to work for long periods of time without tiring or the need to sleep.

 

To learn more, just keep reading this article.

 

History

The drugs real name is Modafinil and is a schedule IV controlled substance. However, doctors perceive it for a number of conditions on a regular basis for Shift Work Sleep Disorder (SWSD), sleep apnea, narcolepsy. During exams at many university bootleg and knockoff drugs, are peddled to the many that are competing for high grades and class rankings that make them attractive to employers who are seeking only the best of the best for the few high paying positions that they are looking to fill.

 

The drug itself was patented in 1990 the drug has been around for some time now and a French company, Cephalon holds the primary patent. However, many other companies have created generic forms of the drug. In some cases, litigation is continuing by Cephalon against the most aggressive of them. They are also the creators of Adrafinil.

 

The drug is manufactured worldwide and in the UK is OTC, Germany has made it a prescription drug, and in Mexico, you can buy it OTC. China is one of the leading makers of this and other generic and knockoff drugs of this type and is a major source for the many athletes and bodybuilders who use it to have more stamina and endurance and is the subject of controversy in the world of professional sports. Just in time for the 2004 Summer Olympics, it was banned by WAD who oversees the use of drugs in professional sporting events.

 

Baseball great, Barry Bond blew the lid off the use of drugs in Pro-sports and Modafinil was mentioned in his expose of the practices of his fellow athletes, how widespread the practice is as yet unknown, as most are reluctant to give away the secrets of their athletic prowess.

 

 

 

Benefits of Provigil

Provigil’s many benefits have been showcased and ABC has run a number special reports on the drug, as well as the many who use it, as it is the secret of many high-powered execs’ successes. Lobbyists in Washington use it regularly to get the edge over Joe public as they line up to garner support for their clients who want to feed from the public trough of money that congress apportions every year.

Not only government hacks but professionals in many fields also use Pro vigil to get the edge.

 

Engineers, programmers, and web designers can work 12 hours at a time to produce a prodigious amount of work, websites, and code required by their bosses who look the other way as success brings in the bucks to the tune of millions of dollars every year.

 

Something is happening in the world of work as prescriptions for the drug has increased by almost 75% between 2007 and 2011. This either means that work stress and long hours are the norm or that enterprising individuals know the only way to win is to use this or many of the other Nootropics now available on the market today.

 

Research is sketchy

Drug companies all have glowing reports on their brand of “Super Pill” and mainstream science is leery of saying anything one way or the other. Doctors will only say that long-term sleep deprivation is harmful and 12 weeks is the recommended length of time for taking the drug without a break.

 

Doctors are also at a loss as to how and why the drug works at all. This has not stopped some scientists to recommend removing all restrictions on the use of the drug as we in America are falling behind countries that openly use performance-enhancing drugs. The EU and China are known to be heavy users of Nootropics and it is considered a normal way of achieving success and is done openly and not in secret as here in the US.

 

 

 

The Long-Term vs. Short-Term usage and risks

Under 12 weeks the drug can turn you into a human dynamo and you can work you shift with more energy and focus that you have ever known. However using the drug for over the recommended 12-week limit one runs the risk of buildup of toxins and stress on the heart, kidneys, and liver. Rashes have been noted in some and if this occurs stop taking the drug and seek medical assistance as this may indicate an allergic or more serious reaction to this type of drug.

 

However, with proper management and adherence to the recommendations laid out by your doctor the drug has shown to have very few side effects. It has been in general use since the 1990s and its benign qualities have been noted by the thousands who use it every day. This is especially true as if you follow the recommended dosage of 200mg before your shift or work day.

 

A certain Web developer that runs a billion dollar software empire takes his at about 5 am and he has been known to take long flights to visit other countries, get off the plane, and at speaking engagements generates millions of dollars in revenues during one speaking tour for his company. He openly admits he owes his success to Provigil.

 

 

 

Is Provigil legal?

As mentioned before it is available via prescription and increasingly doctors are more liberal in their policies about prescribing the drug as many of them feel this and other Nootropics should be made OTC and available for use by everyone in America.

 

Final thoughts on Provigil

Today students are using this “Super Drug” as the military have term Pro vigil and they as well as professionals from all walks of life have turned to the is drug that was approved in 1998 by the FDA to treat certain sleep disorders.

 

One the door was opened we normal people have been kept mostly in the dark as those who use it want to have it for themselves so they can blast past us mere mortals and go for the gold in not only the professional arena but in sports and other athletics as well.

 

Today, we have removed the veil, let you see how many are achieving results, not by blood, sweat, and tears as commonly thought and propagated in popular culture. Instead, they owe their successes to a “Super Drug” that you too can get access through via your doctor or through other channels. Take a look at Amazon (Under Nootropics) and you will find many drugs that are similar to Provigil and give you the same results and can take you to success as well.

10 Dec

How does Modafinil work?

In addition to Modafinil, we also sell Analogue’s, such as Adrafinil, Hydrafinil, Fladrafinil, and Flmodafinil, Click this Link to checkout our homepage store

 

Now there’s a question that needs answering, and it’s one that people have been asking for several years now. There’s a bit of a myth that nothing is known about how modafinil affects the human brain, and that it’s mostly a mystery. In fact, there are quite a few studies out there that have examined small groups of patients with fMRI technology while using modafinil, so we DO have information and CAN answer this question to an extent.

Neurotransmitters at play

To set the table for this, we should go back in time just a bit. Modafinil was supposed to be a non-dopamine alternative to the classic amphetamine family of wakefulness drugs. Amphetamines increase the amount of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is basically the brain’s way of saying “Hey, I like what you did there! Do that again!” Dopamine causes euphoria and reinforces our good actions. It pumps us up when we do something right. Think of the thrill of nailing a play in sports, perfect marks in school, absolutely killing a job interview, you’ll find the same dopamine rush at the end.

Part of the problem is that dopamine active drugs tend to be addictive, and modafinil was presented as the anti-dopamine alternative. Yet some studies have called that into question.

A 2009 JAMA study actually revealed that modafinil increases dopamine in the brain, much like the aforementioned amphetamines. It appears to do this by blocking dopamine transporters. Dopamine, like every other neurotransmitter, is stored in the brain until it is needed, then it is transported out to trigger a certain response, like the ones we just mentioned. If you block the transmission, however, then as your brain continues to produce dopamine as usual you end up with a surplus. That surplus then affects all cells, instead of just specific ones that are targeted by a dopamine release.

The 2009 study tested this by measuring dopamine levels, as well as administering a form of iodinated cocaine which can be detected in an fMRI. It showed that after taking modafinil it was at least twice as difficult for the 11c-cocaine to bind to the usual sites. This is important, because cocaine operates by releasing heaps of dopamine, and it was more difficult for it to work precisely because something was already in cocaine’s parking space: modafinil.

Norepinephrine is another neurotransmitter implicit in modafinil’s mechanism of action. Norepinephrine is in part responsible for a mental state of alertness and attention, and so it seems to be a good explanation of modafinil’s effects. Studies have shown that norepinephrine is slightly increased by modafinil. So modafinil’s mechanism of action can be largely explained by an increase in dopamine and norepinephrine in the human brain, although that’s not the only factor that matters.

Bloody mess

Modafinil increases blood flow in the brain, though not to every place. Both of your pre-frontal cortexes light up like Christmas trees on modafinil. Why does that matter? Your pre-frontal cortex is effectively the part of your brain that handles the most complex thinking and decision making. It’s the part that is most active when you judge whether or not to do something, like when you weigh the pros and cons of an action. It’s also the part of your brain that cares most about reaching goals and planning for the future.

So increased blood flow here means increased activity and that means better brain performance. Sounds like it’s starting to make sense.

Still, it’s not all entirely sunshine and roses. Modafinil actually decreased blood flow to several parts of the left side of your brain. The left side tends to be the analytical and logical side of the brain, with areas that handle maths quite well. The right side is usually the more creative side, handling abstract thought and imagination. So what does that mean for a modafinil user? You might have increased brainpower when you’re deciding how to handle a task and what to take care of next, but if you were planning on knocking out some maths assignments you might find it harder than you had hoped.

So, how modafinil works isn’t really such a mystery at all. It’s building up dopamine in your brain and that explains many of its active effects. The perceived increase in cognitive function can be blamed squarely on increased blood flow to the pre-frontal cortexes and their role in higher thought. The brain is a fascinating place and it just gets more interesting with modafinil. Hopefully more studies will come out revealing more of its functions.

03 Dec

Reducing Side Effects of Modafinil

Modafinil has become popular largely because it’s well tolerated by most people, to the point of many people reporting no side effects at all. However, some users do experience different side effects which can cause some discomfort. This article details how you can avoid or reduce the side effects of modafinil and armodafinil, as many of them are not precisely caused by the medicine but rather by changes in your habits that it tends to create. Clinical trials of modafinil have shown it to be very safe and agreeable with virtually everyone, but there are some who experience mild symptoms as well as the rare severe symptom.

First of all, it’s worth mentioning that side effects tend to scale with dosage. Most people try 200mg of modafinil, but many people find that half a dose is enough to increase productivity and performance without side effects. If you find that these tips don’t work for you, consider lowering your dosage.

Headache

One of the most common complaints from people who take modafinil is having headaches during the day. Roughly 8% of users report headaches as a symptom. Usually they aren’t very severe, but they can be distracting and irritating when they occur. The main reason headaches occur is that modafinil, like many other stimulants, is a diuretic. This means that you’re more likely to urinate throughout the day and water passes through your system faster. The result is that you will get dehydrated faster. In fact, this is generally understood as the same mechanism behind the dreaded hangover headache. You wake up horrifically dehydrated and feeling as though you were a living desert, and the subsequent headache lasts a while as you replenish your fluids.

Solution: Drink more water. Make it a point to keep a bottle around while you’re on modafinil, and fill it up. I normally drink 2-3 bottles a day, and up that to 4-5 if I’m on modafinil and experience no problems.

Also, if you’re a frequent caffeine user, avoid ditching your morning coffee when you use modafinil. Caffeine withdrawal leads to headaches, and while you might not feel the need for the extra energy, have one cup instead of your usual three and you’ll avoid the awful caffeine headache later on.

Dry Mouth

Like the previous symptom, relatively few people complain of dry mouth, but it occurs in about 5-6% of individuals. The reason is exactly the same as the previous one: a lack of water.

Solution: Drink more water. It’s not too hard to interpret your body’s symptoms. Dry mouth means you need more liquids.

Nausea

Nausea is even less common, with only 4% of users reporting it. There are a few possible explanations. One goes back to the dehydration point. Your body needs water to help move food through your stomach and if it gets dry it can lead to more sensitivity and stomach pain, which will lead to nausea. On the other hand, modafinil has been proven to reduce appetite, so you may not feel as hungry and food may seem less appealing. People who report nausea tend to also report this with other types of medicines, so if you know you have a tendency to feel nauseous on certain medications it’s more likely to happen with modafinil as well. It seems to be most common in the morning, or shortly after taking modafinil.

Solution: Have a light breakfast before taking your pill. Stay hydrated. Avoid heavy meals when you’re not in the mood, although don’t stop eating altogether.

Feeling Nervous or Agitated

This symptom is reported in about 5% of users, and it’s much more common on higher doses (9% with 400mg users in clinical trials). Regarding agitation, it seems that as modafinil tends to lock you into an activity with greater concentration, breaking that concentration can be more annoying than usual. People often comment that they’re testier when a coworker or a client asks a question while they’re involved in another task. I can attest to that, and it’s something to watch out for. If you’re aware of it, you can attempt to fight it back by simply counting to three before switching tasks. As far as feeling nervous is concerned, some people find themselves fidgety or antsy with the extra energy they have. This is often the result of a lack of things to do, or disorganization during a modafinil day.

Solution: Breathe before responding, think before you speak. Keep a list of things to do and make sure you check it off as you go. The mental satisfaction of accomplishing your to-dos will outweigh the possible negative influence of modafinil and keep you cheerful.

Trouble Sleeping

Alright, this one is entirely the result of a lack of common sense, but let’s talk about it anyway. Modafinil tends to last about 12 hours and armodafinil generally 2-3 more. After that its effects are significantly reduced and less noticeable. Most people report being unable to sleep while on modafinil, which is more or less the point of the pill seeing as it was designed to treat sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. So don’t be surprised when you plop down for a nap only to be denied. Likewise, don’t be shocked if you took your pill at 10 AM and can’t fall asleep at 10 PM.

Solution: Simple. Plan your day well. Take your modafinil in anticipation of your bedtime. I usually get up at 6 and go to bed around 10. By taking the pill right after I get ready for the day I’m well exhausted by the end of it and sleep very well.

Serious Side Effects (Call a doctor)

Serious side effects are very rare with modafinil, showing up in roughly 1% of the sample populations from studies, based on the number of participants who quit using the drug. However they include some of the following:

  • Fever, including vomiting, headache, blistering and skin peeling
  • Bruising or easier bruising
  • Excessive bleeding
  • White patches or sores inside mouth
  • Mental symptoms such as hallucinations, depression, severe anxiety
  • Chest pains

Fever, excessive bleeding and bruising, and sores in the mouth generally indicate an allergy to the medicine, and it should be stopped immediately. Mental symptoms are usually the result of previously undiagnosed conditions such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, although these have never been shown to be brought on by modafinil. Chest pains are also usually indicative of an underlying condition. Modafinil accelerates the heart and can increase blood pressure, so chest pains are a sign of other heart conditions being exacerbated by modafinil’s effects.

Solution: Call a doctor if you experience any of these symptoms, and stop taking modafinil immediately. There are no recorded fatalities related to modafinil, and it’s extremely safe having passed a battery of tests and trials. However, safety comes first, so do not take these symptoms lightly if you develop them.