29 Jun

Will Smart Drugs Change the World?

Will Smart Drugs like Modafinil Change the World?

When computers began to appear in the workplace, people imagined a world where your 8 hours of work could be done in just one or two, and we would live in a utopia with free time to spend on whatever we wanted. We got the work done faster, but that just meant that we were more productive. Companies squeezed more out of us and with the internet global GDP soared.

Smart drugs present a similar possibility: Could they change our working world?

What could smart drugs change about us?

Smart drugs like modafinil have the potential to increase our cognitive abilities. As recent studies have shown, modafinil is completely safe and DOES in fact improve your mental processes. Also, considering that modafinil sharpens your focus, you can get more done in less time.

I see this in my daily life as I use modafinil. When I have to make a complicated Excel chart I get more done in less time, and the work is of higher quality because I focus on details and produce a more perfect product. Same goes for reviewing documents in the office. I can stare at a stack of papers and not feel the dread I normally do, and I get distracted less frequently.

So modafinil, and perhaps other smart drugs still to come, could make us more productive.

What happens when smart drugs make us productive?

Historically speaking, whenever workers are made more productive by technology, employers still expect them to work the same amount of hours. Farmers with large tractors simply cleared more land than before, instead of clearing the same amount and taking a nap. Factory workers produced more parts with machines than by hand, but still put in an 8 hour shift. And you now can communicate instantly with the internet, instead of phone calls and answering letters with a typewriter. So you communicate more.

In fact, technology has increased our working hours as more people can take their work home with them.

The trend would likely continue: Companies will expect you to become more productive as you show that you can consistently produce more in less time.

How would this happen?

I don’t want to scare you with a portrait of a dystopia where companies hand out pills every morning. This isn’t Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World. Instead, I think the competition would come from one another. We already see this in universities: Students compete for the top position in their class and turn to smart drugs to give them an advantage.

And we see this in sports every day, just look at the MLB steroid scandals of the 90s. Players took steroids because other players took them. They needed to compete.

What happens when this generation of smart drug users enters the workplace? Will they stop looking for an advantage? Probably not.

And now you can easily imagine a world in which we all need to take a pill just to stay competitive and avoid being made redundant.

Will Modafinil Change how we Work?

In some fields, we might see modafinil being taken like candy. The lawyer who has to pore over documents would benefit, as would the entrepreneur. A programmer who can stay up all night would have an advantage too. But creative jobs probably won’t be taking modafinil any time soon as there are no reports of modafinil stimulating creativity.

So the answer depends on your line of work. See what your co-workers are doing. And if nobody is doing yet, maybe you should start the trend.

27 Jun

Can you Overdose on Modafinil

Can you overdose on Modafinil?

The internet is chock full of reports of users trying more than the daily recommended amount of modafinil. 200mg is the approved dosage for regular use, but many people have reported trying 400mg or even more. The question is, is this dangerous and at what point could you overdose? The FDA’s complete report on modafinil gives us the answers.

What is an overdose?

An overdose is simply when too much of something is consumed, and this results in unpleasant physical effects that can be dangerous or even life-threatening. Many common medications can actually be quite dangerous in large quantities, for instance acetaminophen (Tylenol) can cause liver damage with doses of up to 4000mg. Take 12,000mg, and you’ll likely die of liver failure.

You can even die from drinking too much water! So overdose is always possible. However, if you use common sense you shouldn’t have any issues.

LD50 and Overdose

The LD50 is the “lethal dose 50% of the time” in an animal or a human. Companies have to find the LD50 for their product, and they usually use rats for this since they have similar metabolisms to people. An LD50 is measured in mg/kg, that is, milligrams of the medicine per kilogram of body weight. So an LD50 of 10mg/kg would mean that a person who weighs 50kg would reach the LD50 after taking 500mg.

How much to Overdose on Modafinil?

The good news is that modafinil is very well tolerated in individuals and so far there have not been any cases of overdose in humans. The amount needed to kill a rat is well over 1,000mg/kg. The average person weighs about 80kg, meaning that they would need to take 80,000mg/kg to die. That’s over 400 pills! I think it’s safe to say that there’s no risk of dying due to accidental, or even intentional modafinil use.

But an overdose is possible without extreme consequences. There was an instance of a 3-year-old child taking 4 or 5 pills, over 50mg/kg! He was fine, just extremely hyper for a while.

In adults there were two cases where 20 pills (4000mg+) were taken at once! The patients reported feeling very uncomfortable and unable to relax at all. However, aside from the temporary mental side effects, they were fine physically and returned to normal after a couple of days.

Are large doses safe then?

While you probably shouldn’t take 20 pills at once (not to mention it’d be quite expensive if you did) the risk of an overdose is generally very low. Clinical trials have tested doses of 800mg-1200mg in adults with no serious side-effects or overdose situations. It seems that taking these larger doses of modafinil increases the chance of minor side effects, such as headaches or nausea. But the patients took these doses regularly and had no long-term issues.

So if you want to try a larger dose, go ahead. But keep it reasonable, and definitely don’t give children larger doses. Overdosing on modafinil is nearly impossible, but it can happen if you are careless.

22 Jun

Modafinil’s Effects on Cognition now Officially Proven

Modafinil’s soaring popularity is due to its “off-label” use to improve cognition, where qualities such as alertness and concentration are useful for things like exam preparation.  Past studies on sleep-deprived individuals demonstrated a strong positive effect on these functions, but there has been less attention and scientific consensus on the drug’s overall effectiveness as a cognitive enhancer in people that are not sleep-deprived.

Now, a new systematic review, published online in the peer-reviewed journal European Neuropsychopharmacology shows that modafinil does indeed confer significant cognitive benefits.

The Study

Doctors Ruairidh Battleday and Anna-Katharine Brem from the University of Oxford and Harvard Medical School evaluated all available research papers on cognitive enhancement with modafinil from January 1990 to December 2014. 24 of these dealt with cognitive benefits associated with taking modafinil, including planning, flexibility, learning, memory, decision making, and creativity.

The results were dependent on the task. It showed that the longer the task and the more complex it was, the more consistently modafinil conferred cognitive benefits. Decision-making and planning improved the most. Better yet, 70% of the studies showed minimal negative effects.

New Information

According to Dr. Battleday, this is the first overview of modafinil’s actions in non-sleep-deprived individuals since 2008, and in those 7 years heaps of new data became available. But it’s not just new data. The testing used to be very basic, developed for neurologically-impaired individuals. In contrast, recent studies have begun to use more complex tests and when they are used it appears modafinil more reliably enhances cognition. Good news for those hard exams

The Results

Two main conclusions stand out: First, in the face of few side effects in these controlled environments, modafinil can be considered a safe cognitive enhancer; Second, we need to continue testing normal or even supra-normal cognition in a reliable manner.

Professor Guy Goodwin, President of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, added that “modafinil may well deserve the title of the first well-validated pharmaceutical nootropic agent.” In other words, it’s the first real example of a ‘smart drug’, which can genuinely help people in their regular lives.

Ethical Considerations

It seems to be so efficient at what it does that some researchers have questioned if it is really fair for someone to have that advantage when taking an exam. Others have made the point that whether we like it or not this is going to eventually make its way into the workplace due to its efficiency and safety, it is all really just a matter of time. And as we’ve discussed here before, modafinil can’t really be considered cheating.

So break open your blister packs, it’s time to celebrate the good news: Modafinil is officially the first real, proven smart drug.

19 Jun

Modafinil: The Pill that Powers your Military

Modafinil isn’t just for civilians anymore, it is also the pill that is powering militaries all over the world. A growing number of countries use modafinil as a way to help soldiers stay awake to go beyond their limits. It’s especially helpful for pilots who must endure long flight missions without falling asleep. Military research divisions are leaving behind amphetamines, used since World War 2. This research is being openly sponsored and supervised by military agencies in more than 9 different countries.

Military research leaders

The United States is leading the pack in this research, conducting experiments through the Air Force Research Laboratory, Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and Special Operations Command Biomedical Initiative Steering Committee. That is just in the USA alone, there are many more putting in their effort to help push modafinil to its limits and give their soldiers an almost superhuman edge.

Canada has done its fair share of research at Defense Research and Development Canada. Asia is in on the action as well: China’s Second Military Medical University, South Korea’s Air Force Academy, Taiwan’s National Defense Medical Center, and the Bioengineering Laboratory of Singapore’s Defense Medical and Environmental Research Institute. India is also playing its part investigating modafinil through its Institute of Aerospace Medicine and Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences.

In Europe, France’s research program includes its Ministry of Defense, Military Health Service Research Center, and Institute of Aerospace Medicine. The Netherlands Ministry of Defense is also probing modafinil. The UK and other EU countries are actively using modafinil, providing valuable field data. And this is only the public research that has been published so far, there will be so much more in the near future that will surely leave us in awe.

Modafinil’s military applications

Some of the publicly reported studies thus far have tested modafinil in Black Hawk helicopter pilots, F-117 fighter pilots, French paratroopers, and Canadian reservists, among others. They’ve simulated A-6 Intruder bombing missions, AWACS flights, and French Navy patrols. In nearly every trial, modafinil has extended the ability to function without sleep. And we’re already using it in the field. The United States has given modafinil to Air Force personnel since the 2003 Iraq invasion. By 2004, the British Ministry of Defense had bought 24,000 tablets. By 2007, France was routinely supplying it to fighter pilots.

But why is all of this so important to these militaries? It is because of the urgency, one far greater than any other agency would have. For an airline a missed flight could just mean a small financial loss, but to the air force this could mean life or death. They are also more likely to need to be alert and vigilant during a mission and need to be able to perform at 100%.

Not a new concept, but a new solution

Militaries have been using stimulants for their soldiers for centuries. The British years ago would use tea as a way to try to stay awake and alert due to the caffeine found in it. Prussians went even further, using cocaine to power their soldiers. World War II is when both sides began to use amphetamines, which were highly effective, yet not ideal for soldiers’ health. The strong effects of these “go pills” had to be counteracted by “stop pills” which, as their name implies, helped relax soldiers afterwards. Amphetamines are still in use around the world, but governments recognize the harmful effects. Modafinil’s safety and effectiveness explain why so many countries are adopting it and publicly sponsoring that research.

10 Jun

Starting a Business with Modafinil

It’s everybody’s dream: Owning your own business, being your own boss, not having to answer to anybody but yourself and your desires. As great as it sounds few people ever actually take a chance and try to launch their own company. A recent Forbes article showed that 13% of US citizens were involved in a start-up, but that does not mean they were the owners.

If the vast majority of people want to have their own business, then why don’t they try? While many have tried and failed the number of people who haven’t tried at all is staggering in comparison. Perhaps the biggest reason is simply a lack of opportunity. Most people assume that businesses are expensive to start, but in reality many businesses can be started for a few thousand pounds. No, the biggest obstacle to the would-be entrepreneur isn’t money or ideas, it’s time.

Businesses typically take at least a year, perhaps two to reach the point of profitability where the owner can afford to take a full salary from the business and live comfortably. This means that for most start-ups the owner either has cash saved up or has another job to support himself while the business grows. Most of us are already exhausted by our 9 to 5 plus commute, now imagine adding a completely new experience on top of that. That part-time business on top of your existing responsibilities can mean that you end up ineffective on everything that you do.

What starting a business looks like

To get a better picture of how modafinil can help an entrepreneur let’s imagine we have a single person with a regular work schedule that ends at 5 PM. Normally our ambitious individual would have woken up at 8 to be at work by 9, but now with the new business demands she wakes up at 6 to make a batch of her specialty soap.

After working all day he finds himself sleepy since he woke up two hours earlier, but he still needs to go and try to sell some of his latest product to local vendors before they close in the evening. Unfortunately lacking energy his sales pitch doesn’t have the same impact as it might have otherwise and the products will stay on his kitchen shelf.

She gets home at 9 and falls asleep on the couch watching TV with a bowl of ramen. The lack of a good meal will affect her tomorrow as she tries yet again to make some more sales and produce a better product for her potential customers.

Starting a business, now with modafinil

Let’s run through this scenario one more time. First, our future star wakes up and takes 100mg of modafinil, half a pill, first thing out of bed. By the time she’s warming up the stovetop the effects are kicking in. She pays careful attention to her work and the soap she makes today is particularly good. She writes down the changes to her method to copy tomorrow.

Work is a little busier than usual: more customer complaints to sift through. But because of modafinil our guy is able to get into a nice rhythm and avoid distractions, finishing off a stack of papers in half the time it would have normally taken. He gets to have a longer lunch as a result. Before he eats it though he takes the other half of his morning’s pill, ready to recharge for the second half of the day.

Work is done, and now it’s time to sell. With added intensity and a well-rehearsed speech she finally nails down a potentially big customer and gets her product stocked into a local boutique shop. She comes home and prepares something decent to eat. As the modafinil wears off she decides to spend a little extra time on the label to make it more presentable in stores. This morning’s batch is ready to be packaged and she’s confident it’ll be a hit tomorrow.

Starting a business can be easier with modafinil

Modafinil isn’t going to give you the brilliant idea that you need to become a successful entrepreneur, and it won’t magically put money in your pocket to start your businesses. All it can do is help you to maximize your time and use your energy better. Since time is one of the most critical resources for start-ups, modafinil can be a huge boon to someone trying to start their own business. If you’ve ever had the dream but have yet to give it a try, maybe the little white pill is all you need.



07 Jun

What is the Best Dosage of Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam Dosage

What is Pramiracetam

A nootropic is a smart drug that has brain boosting and cognitive enhancing elements. Pramiracetam is a nootropic supplement that was developed in the 1970’s by scientists at Parker Davis. It is said to be one of the most powerful of the racetams. It was patented in 1978; the patent expired in 1996. The company Menarini markets pramiracetam under the brand name Pramistar. It is an over the counter smart drug that does not require a prescription.


Increases mental performance

Increases intelligence

Improves memory

Improves the ability to learn

Improves and increases concentration levels

Can increase energy levels

Improves clarity of thought

Improves focus

Can be used as part of a treatment plan for memory and attention deficits in aging people with neurodegenerative and vascular dementia.


It is recommended to take pramiracetam be taken with food, milk or fish. The maximum recommended daily dose is 1200 mg. It is recommended to take pramiracetam 400 mg three times a day or 600 mg two times a day.

Side Effects

Pramiracetam has very few side effects and no significant side effects have been shown to result from short term or long term use. However, it may cause headaches, anxiety, fatigue and nervousness.

Long-term Use

Pramiracetam can increase long-term memory function, a better attention span, an anxietyincrease in cognitive abilities, a greater clarity of life and a better long-term outlook. It increases brain health, as well as increased verbal fluidity, increased vocabulary and a better flow in conversations all around. Other long term effects are to feel more awake, more alive and more intelligent. It has also been said to increase brain health in people with brain injuries. People have said they experienced a surge of creativity, as well as reasoning. No adverse long-term effects have been found.

Short-term Use

Pramiracetam can increase memory, focus, motivation and brain health. Short term use will only result in subtle effects. The longer you use it, the more prominent the results will be. It may take a few weeks to notice enhancements. No adverse effects have been found from short-term use.


While small doses of pramiracetam do not have these effects, high doses, or megadosing, can increase nitric oxide levels in the brain.


In 2004, a study found that Pramiracetam could be five to ten times stronger than Piracetam. A study performed in 1994 shows pramiracetam was able to partially reduce amnesic effects in young and old. More information on this study can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15374306. A 1999 study showed significant improvement of memory and cognition in males who had sustained brain injuries. The study lasted 18 months while taking pramiracetam, as did the effects. A month after discontinuing use, the effects had not changed.

Details on this study can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1786500. In 1985, a study was performed to check the pharmacokinetics of Pramiracetam. The conclusion was there were no significant side effects from use of any dosage. More information can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4008675. Information can be found at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00174378?LI=true regarding a study that showed an improvement in memory performance. Another study from 1985 that showed an increase in cognitive function from pramiracetam use can be found at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/002432058590311X.

Why Use Pramiracetam?

Anyone can take pramiracetam. There are many benefits of adding pramiracetam to your daily regimen, but very few side effects. If you have sustained a brain injury, pramiracetam may help with memory, cognition and brain health. For elderly people with memory issues, pramiracetam may help to improve memory and attention deficits. If you experience difficulty remembering things, or just need to increase your focus and attention span, you should use pramiracetam. Some professionals also use pramiracetam for its brain and memory boosting effects.

02 Jun

Have a Sparkling Clean House with Modafinil

Have you done your annual “spring cleaning” yet? I don’t blame you if you haven’t. Nobody likes cleaning. It’s time consuming, boring, repetitive, and worst of all you know it’s all just going to get dirty again. Anytime something is boring we become much more prone to distraction. We’ll happily interrupt our vacuuming to watch an episode of a sitcom. Chores are always going to be chores, but they have to be done. So get them done with modafinil.

It doesn’t matter who you are, you have stuff to clean. So everybody can benefit here. So if you want a clean house, get some modafinil and crush those chores. Here’s how it works:

Modafinil’s best effect: Focus

If I had to cite the one thing that makes modafinil great, it’s the fact that it locks you into whatever you are doing. You are focused. Earth could be ending outside and you’d still stay on task. That means you’re less likely to take a break in the middle of dusting the furniture or washing the dishes. Pretty soon you’ll have your feet up on the couch, relaxed knowing you’ve demolished every item on your list. Which reminds me, make a list.

Focus needs to be focused, if that makes sense. There’s a dangerous space between tasks. Those gaps allow you to latch on to something you hadn’t planned on doing, for instance you might start reorganizing items in the fridge when you go for a drink of water. If you alphabetize every item in your fridge, I’m sure it will look great and be super useful later on. But you’re probably wasting your time. So make a list and stick to it. This way your focus won’t run amok.

Better execution equals a REALLY clean house

This message goes out to the young men out there: You don’t clean nearly as well as you should. You think you wiped the counter down well, but in reality you totally ignored the cracks in the corners. You thought the floor was spotless, until somebody moved that table that you decided to mop around instead of under. Modafinil will make you lift up the microwave and discover the horrors beneath.

The extra focus modafinil gives you also makes you pay more attention to detail. You’ll become a Terminator of dirt, scanning and eliminating all uncleanliness in your home. Make sure you manage your time. It’s best to do this on a free day when you don’t have to worry about something else you have to do later. The end result of your labor though will be rewarding: The cleanest your house has been since you moved in.

Clean with a smile

Modafinil makes accomplishing any task feel rewarding and less dull. Normally I detest cleaning, to the point of putting it off for days. I complain the whole time. When I take modafinil I don’t have the same negative thoughts about it, instead I feel proud about doing a good job with each item I knock off the list. When I stand in the kitchen doorway and admire my work, I’m impressed and that motivates me to keep going. So if you’re like me and can’t stand the thought of cleaning, this will tip the scales in your favor.

What are you waiting for?

It’s simple. If you dread cleaning or you get easily distracted along the way, modafinil will set you straight. You’ll work faster, better, AND you’ll enjoy yourself more. Once you’re done crack open a cold one and pat yourself on the back.