27 May

Modafinil: The Preferred Study Drug of Australia

Vice.com is one of the most popular sites for millennials around the world, specializing in honest talk about edgy topics. Their Australian branch investigated young people’s increasing tendency to turn to drugs for enhancement when studying. Two things stood out: First, modafinil is by far the drug of choice for students looking to study harder; second, the interviews that Vice conducted confirm many of the statements made here such as stress being the main reason why students use nootropics and the fact that modafinil is no worse ethically than drinking coffee.

The interviewees

The column highlighted four different students’ responses. They were all between 18-22 years of age and university students. Two men and two women were featured. This represents the most common demographic of modafinil users. While it’s used by many people in different walks of life, university students particularly have latched onto it in the last decade.

The responses

The answers that the students gave regarding their drug use could be described as “nonchalant”. The fact that they were using drugs to gain an advantage didn’t seem to be a problem at all. This reflects changing attitudes in the latest generation of students, who overwhelmingly use less-harmful drugs like marijuana. They got their modafinil online as most people do and had no worries about doing so. Studying today is a challenge that simply cannot be faced without some help, and it’s evident that these students have carefully considered their choices and have found them acceptable.

To illustrate this point, consider what Duncan said when asked if his drug use was “fair” to other students.

It has zero impact on anyone else, and for that reason I don’t believe it’s unfair or unethical.

Or when Krystal was questioned about modafinil disrupting her sleep patterns.

It really assists with study emergencies, it means I don’t have to freak out about staying awake or not. I’m pretty set in the way I study so all-nighters are normal for me anyway, it just helps me stay awake.

And the other drugs?

Modafinil wasn’t the only drug mentioned in the interviews. Another that came up as a study aid was marijuana, which admittedly might seem counterintuitive. As with everything an individual’s response may vary and Anna found that it helped her a great deal. Two of the people surveyed mentioned amphetamine-based medications such as Adderall or Ritalin, but both derided them. Robbie was quoted as saying:

Some friends were talking about how they could get their hands on Ritalin, then Dexys. We tried those and they were pretty good but they didn’t last long and I’d feel pretty shit afterwards. We got our hands on Modafinil and just went from there.


Overall these types of reports show that more students are happily using modafinil instead of other types of drugs. This goes hand in hand with the fading stigma behind drug use in university, now completely gone in Australia. The candor and openness with which these four answered their questions goes to show how unafraid they are to admit their drug use. Ethical arguments in favor of nootropics are increasingly common. It’s safe to say these trends will continue barring any unforeseen circumstances.

24 May

Korean Study Reaffirms Modafinil’s Safety

As off-label use of modafinil becomes the rule rather than the exception researchers have scrambled to evaluate the safety of this behavior. Most early studies focused specifically on patients with the conditions that modafinil was designed to treat, such as narcolepsy. However, the last five years have produced several interesting studies and peer reviews that evaluate modafinil’s safety for off-label use. A 2012 Korean study reaffirms modafinil’s safety, and is of particular interest because it was conducted with a military focus.

Modafinil in the military

This topic has been touched on before so I’ll keep it brief. Modafinil is of extreme interest to the military who is always looking to give their soldiers an advantage. Combat fatigue is one of the greatest weaknesses of the human soldier. Modafinil can reduce that and thus extend a soldiers useful time. This is especially true in the air force where pilots may have to engage for hours on end without stopping until the fight is over. This Korean study was funded by the Agency for Defence Development, which is an R&D branch of the Korean military.

I’m not military, so why should I care?

Good question! The fact is that the military is comprised of regular everyday people like you and me. In fact, a military population by simple logic must consist of healthy individuals. You can’t have narcoleptics holding guns in a firefight. Effectively the military’s use of modafinil is exactly the same as anyone else’s off-label use. They want to stay awake and alert longer, and so do you.

The study evaluated off-label users and compared findings from other studies and arrived at an impressive conclusion.

The results are in

Modafinil can be used by anyone, who wishes to work late, stay awake, enhance their cognitive reactions, or brighten their moods. Users may already be under a great level of stress, i.e. cancer patients or soldiers in a battle field. A psychoneuroimmunological approach is thus needed to investigate the multi-functional effects of modafinil.

The first half should make total sense, right up until the world’s longest word pops up. Psychoneuroimmunological. If you needed a few tries to say that one out loud don’t feel bad, so did I. Basically there’s a small amount of evidence that suggests that modafinil could repress the immune system in some way, thus increasing the chances of infection. How serious this is up for debate, and that’s precisely why Dongsoo Kim (the author) recommends further studies in the area. Psychoneuroimmunological is a fancy way of saying that we need studies that examine the effects of modafinil on the immune system, the brain, and the mind, preferably all three to figure out exactly what (if any) impact the drug has on the immune system.

This research is also needed because of another point mentioned in the study: Stress. Stress has a proven impact on the immune system, so any further impact from a drug could greatly increase the rate of infection. While the stress of exams isn’t on the same level as the stress a soldier or a cancer patient might experience, stress is relative. For a student in secondary school or university, those final exams might be the worst thing they’ve ever experienced, meaning that they feel just as much stress as the fighter being shot at or the person undergoing chemotherapy.

But the key point of the study and one we should take home today is that modafinil can be used by anyone. There really isn’t any kind of healthy individual that can’t take modafinil. So if you’ve been considering it, give it a try.


20 May

Modafinil: The New Fuel of Wall Street

Modafinil use has increased tenfold in the last decade. Who better to take advantage of it than entrepreneurs? “The new fuel of Wall Street” is what New York Magazine referred to it as in an interview with Peter Borden, a quantitative analyst on Wall Street, who spoke about his experience with modafinil, how it has grown among businessmen like himself, and why he not only prefers it over drugs like Adderall, but considers it the most effective nootropic available.

His name was Peter Borden

Peter was hesitant at first. He always preferred alternative medicine or natural treatments like acupuncture. Peter was working two jobs at the time doing quantitative analysis and project management by day for a B2B start up, and at night developing a proprietary high frequency trading system for a Wall Street start-up of his own. There’s only so much a person can do given 24 hours a day, and Peter found himself short on time for both his endeavors. Modafinil to the rescue. On his first day with it, after a few hours he described “a pleasant fuzziness, but not fuzzy-headed, but crisp. A crisp softness to it.” Mr. Borden soon began experiencing levels of concentration he never imagined possible. He described his focus as his senses shifting to visual, the auditory sense went down as if sounds no longer registered, and “it was like walking around on a winter day when it just snowed. It was very easy to stay visually focused”, claimed Peter.

Peter described a “head rush” and said it was as if his eyes were sort of engorged and his awareness had moved to the front of his face. That potent focus gave tasks once considered “usually soul-crushing” his undivided attention. He would spend hours fine-tuning his ad campaigns for the new business and he worked faster and for longer hours, but most importantly with better results. He claimed he was not taking many breaks, felt no frustration, and things came out with fewer errors than usual. Not only was he able to do these once frustrating tasks without any bother, he actually felt happier.

Wall Street’s new best friend

In New York, Borden heard various traders and hedge-funders on Wall Street talk about modafinil as “the big league” compared to the layman’s 5-Hour Energy. Though he did note that they didn’t tend to boast about it as much as the guys in the tech department would. Competition breeds secrecy, can’t be giving away your advantage.

Peter’s case isn’t the only public one either. Entrepreneur Daniel Tenner also used modafinil to launch his first company while he was still working for the consulting firm Accenture. He was waking up every day at 4am to work until 7am, napped an hour, and then went to work at his day job before promptly sleeping again at 11pm. He was also working weekends to make sure he could launch his company. Modafinil kept him closer to 100% throughout the day instead of falling off the cliff of exhaustion.

The only way to push the physical limits of the body is to bring in some hired help, and modafinil is a lot cheaper than an employee. A new business is as important to an entrepreneur as a new baby would be, and it requires just as much devotion and sleepless nights. It’s no wonder then why Wall Street and Silicon Valley startups alike are turning to Modafinil for a chance to reach their dreams. The two deserve a romantic comedy next summer, they’re that good of a couple.


16 May

Are ‘Smart Drugs’ Cheating?

Cheating in school or university takes many forms. You probably think of leaning over someone’s shoulder to see their answers to copy them onto your paper, or maybe you scribbled some formulas on your hand or under your sleeve for a math exam. Or maybe you just simply copied your friend’s homework first thing in the morning. Copy-pasting from the internet to finish an essay on time is another example.

64% of students have admitted to cheating on a test and a whopping 95% said they’d cheated at some time or another. As there is increased pressure on students to get good grades and an ever-increasing quantity of work to do, it’s no wonder why students feel the need to cheat.

I think all of those reading would agree that the methods I mentioned above qualify as cheating, although viewpoints vary on whether that’s morally acceptable or not. But are smart drugs cheating? Is taking a pill to boost your mental performance a violation of some sort of ethical code? This question is hard to answer because of its novelty. It’s practically the plot of a science-fiction story, yet here we are in 2016 talking about the ethics of nootropics.

The Steroid Argument

A very solid parallel can be made between the heyday of homeruns and broken records in 1990s baseball and the modafinil market today. As everyone suspected and later confirmed, many of the legends of baseball were using steroids to enhance their physical performance. Those balls didn’t crush themselves out of the park. Most sports ban a large number of substances, modafinil included. This is in an attempt to keep the sport “pure” and “honest”.

Modafinil then, it’s been argued, is steroids for your brain and thus is a form of cheating. Except this completely ignores the fact that education and athletics are two completely different arenas. I consider steroid use in sports an affront because in professional sports the physical differences between one athlete and another are rather slim. Tenths of a second make the difference between a first round draft pick and a 3rd rounder in the NFL or NBA. Steroids or performance enhancing drugs can more than make up for that slim difference and catapult a player beyond his capacity.

It doesn’t hold up for modafinil because in education there is little to no selection process. At the high school level it’s a complete free-for-all. Students aren’t separated into groups according to their mental athleticism, they’re grouped by age. Even in university where students must meet entry requirements, large groups of students are clumped together, both the adept and the struggling alike, and often students take courses outside their main interests that require skills which they haven’t developed.

The other huge disparity in this comparison is that in sports there can only be one winner, one champion, and the rest are ranked objectively lower. This doesn’t occur in academia. Two people can have perfect marks, and the grading is in many fields subjective. If your enhancement doesn’t detract from another person’s results, it doesn’t do any harm to anyone else.

The Ethical Argument

Is cheating wrong in the first place? Either 95% of people have no morals or the system is so powerful that it overwhelms their morals. Perhaps it’s a bit of both. However, cheating in education simply doesn’t cause harm to other people, and thus it’s ethically justifiable as something a person must do to keep up. Considering the abundant workloads of students today it’s understandable that they may need to take shortcuts to avoid falling off the map. We should be asking why there’s a system in place that overloads students to the point of causing ethically questionable situations.

So, are smart drugs cheating?

As far as using modafinil and other nootropics, it’s this author’s opinion that taking a smart drug is cheating, but that’s not a bad thing. You’re cheating your nature and harnessing the greatest advancements human society has put together. That, I feel, is why we’re all cheaters. You cheated when you took your car instead of walking to work. You cheat when you Google something instead of going to the library for a book. You cheat when you call someone instead of finding them in person for a conversation. We all cheat on the backs of the innovations made by people before us. Modafinil is no exception to that process.

So take your pill and leave your guilt behind.

07 May

What is Pramiracetam?


What is Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam was developed in the 1970s and is one of the strongest and most well-known nootropic supplements currently available today. This particular drug helps to stimulate the central nervous system, and is also said to be beneficial in both restoring and maintaining the overall health of the human brain. Other similar drugs are Piracetam, Aniracetam and Oxiracetam.

You can get Pramiracetam in Bulk from these Locations

1. Health-sources.com

2. Modup.net’s Nootropics Store!



Pramiracetam is not a drug that instantly makes you smarter the first time you take it, although it does offer a significant boost to many areas of both your brain and your body. The drug also offers the following benefits:


*Improved memory

*Increased ability to learn

*Improved ability to concentrate

*Significant boost in energy levels

anxiety*Heightened amount of both alertness and reasoning

*Improved motivation and focus

*Increase in high-affinity choline uptake

*Enhanced long-term memory formation

*Increased blood flow to the brain


It’s also worth noting that many of these benefits have been scientifically tested; however, they still require more research to completely confirm.



In order to obtain the full effects of Pramiracetam, a dosage amount of between 600mg and 900mg per day is recommended. Ideally, you should take 300mg in the morning and another 300mg in the afternoon; however, you should first check with the company that you purchase the drug from beforehand, as you will always want to stick with their recommended dosage amount.


Side Effects

It should be noted that the Racetam family of nootropic drugs are not considered to be toxic in any way; however, as with virtually every other type of drug, there are some minor side effects that users of Pramiracetam may experience while taking it. These side effects include the following:






*GI tract distress


Generally, these side effects will only present themselves if users take more than the recommended dosage amount. If this is something that you have done and you begin to experience any of these side effects, simply go back to taking the recommended dosage amount. If the side effects continue, consult with your doctor as soon as possible.


Long-Term Use

Those individuals who have used Pramiracetam on a long-term basis have described the nootropic drug as being “revolutionary,” especially those who suffer from a disorder such as ADHD. In fact, in some European countries, this drug is often used as an alternative to many ADHD stimulant medication due to how much safer it actually is. Furthermore, people such as college students and those who work stressful careers have also used Pramiracetam as a way to help them get through their day, especially since the benefits far outweigh the negative side effects. They report experiencing better concentration, which helps them get through their days a lot better as a result.


Short-Term Use

Those who have taken Pramiracetam on a short-term basis have noted that doing so didn’t have as much of a positive effect as taking the nootropic drug on a more long-term basis. A short-term basis of the drug resulted in more irritability, lack of concentration/brain cognition, etc. This led to them going back to taking the supplement on a more long-term basis.



Those who have engaged in megadosing with Pramiracetam have reporting various results, both good and bad. While some reported going to sleep and waking up with a much clearer head, other have reported such things as having their ability to think actually decline when taking higher doses of the supplement. Various sources, though, agree that megadosing on Pramiracetam is something that generally is not such a great idea in the long run.



Here are a few basic research facts regarding Pramiracetam:


*The first patent of the supplement was obtained in 1978.

*It is one of the strongest nootropics available, known to increase mental performance and certain metrics of intelligence.

*While this drug will not make you instantly smarter, it will improve your memory, ability to learn, reasoning and even your concentration and energy levels.

*There are no known interactions with other drugs and it is not toxic.


Why Use Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is a supplement that essentially helps to boost your overall brain activity, yet contains no harmful ingredients that will cause any permanent damage to your body as a result. Furthermore, this is also a supplement that will help you work around the clock and stay alert, yet will not cause you to crash and burn when you least expect it. Even better is the fact that Pramiracetam is nothing even close to a prescription medication that you can become addicted to, unlike other products that are available out there, which is perfect if you are someone who is in college and looking for a great way to stay up and pull and all-nighter for that tough exam you’ve got coming up!

06 May

Latin America doesn’t like Modafinil

Here at modafinil.co.uk we focus on Modafinil in the Anglophone world, which is host to a diverse array of opinions. Due to the fact that more users and more news outlets have touched on modafinil, all possible angles have been covered, from negative aspects to the positive ones. This abundance of information allows us to formulate balanced opinions about modafinil.

In other parts of the world where the smart-drug nootropic craze has only recently arrived and in much smaller numbers, army-like resistance is being put up. Particularly in Chile where drug laws are strict compared to other South American countries, the pushback is powerful.

Schools south of the Equator tend to begin their year in March after the southern hemisphere’s winter. Just in time for school, the journal Economy and Business of Chile released a warning for school staff and students to watch out for students taking drugs to get adjusted to the rigorous school methods. It’s worth mentioning that Chilean students often study from 8 AM to 4 PM in many schools and the classes are designed to be demanding with large amounts of homework.

The sentiments were echoed a day later by Chilean news outlet Bio Bio. Bio Bio is one of Chile’s largest news networks also holds the country’s widest radio coverage. The article, however, is possibly some of the worst scare tactic writing I’ve ever witnessed. The title of their article is “The dangers of consuming this marvelous pill that makes students perform.” Bio Bio openly admits that the pill makes students perform, but then goes on to list every possible negative side effect that could ever happen, ignoring their minuscule probability.

What’s worse, the article even mentions side effects that aren’t real. The article says that “As modafinil produces blurred vision sometimes, you shouldn’t drive if you take it.” This is an outright false claim which has never been demonstrated in any of the dozens of clinical trials, nor is it one of the FDA warnings.

Another Spanish language article from the BBC is called “My nightmare with pills called smart pills.”  What was the nightmare? A little bit of dehydration headaches that came after the user admitted to not drinking enough. Where was the horror story here? His first day was a complete success. The second day he discovered that modafinil can make you focus on the wrong things, and instead of working around it, gave up after his third day resulted in headaches. Both of his problems were completely avoidable, but instead of doing things right, he blames the pill.

This type of shoddy journalism is harmful to the truth, and I for one take offense to it. Talking about side effects is fine, and this blog has never once shied away from discussing the subject. But good reporting cites studies, gives the probability of the side effects, and doesn’t invent lies out of thin air or attach a horrific title to a benign story.

So why are the articles found in Spanish so one-sidedly negative? A big part of it is culture. Latin American countries tend to have much more conservative views about drugs and medicine in general. Pill culture is less dominant as it is in the US or the UK, where taking a pill is perfectly normal. Natural medicine is often recommended. For instance, in Peru students are frequently given a cup of tea to deal with a headache instead of a simple painkiller like Tylenol. Where Anglophone nations applaud their medical innovations, people in Latin America lean more towards home remedies and things their mother would suggest.


05 May

Why Students Really Use Modafinil

The cat is completely out of the bag and across the street when it comes to student use of modafinil. Increasingly, university surveys report higher percentages of students using pharmaceuticals to stay awake, keep focused, and perform better. Students are one of the biggest demographics for modafinil sales. This blog has often talked about the benefits that modafinil gives students, but one thing we haven’t talked about is why students feel the need seek medical assistance to complete their work in the first place.

Under Pressure

The late David Bowie put it well. Students are under increased pressure to succeed, and not just at the university level anymore. Pressures formerly reserved for the hardest working students, kids in law school and medical school, are now commonplace in secondary schools. A recent study that surveyed kids in three different types of high schools in New York revealed that almost exactly half of them reported feeling stressed on a daily basis, with over 40% reporting 3 hours of homework or more per night. I don’t know about you, but 40% of the people I know don’t take home three hours of extra work after they clock out for the day.

With the average school student putting in an 8-hour work day like an adult, plus this extra work at home, it’s no surprise people need more energy to compensate. Enter the stimulants: Ritalin and Adderall dominated for much of the last decade, and modafinil has gained in market share since.

Why it’s a problem now

This pressure was not commonplace a few decades ago. So why now? A big part of the problem is that there simply are more people and less seats available in university classrooms. Over 2.3 million students attend university in the UK, and most of the brick and mortar buildings are at max capacity. This has been great for online modalities, such as England’s Open University, whose enrollment is more than double the University of London’s 65,000 students.

But there is still a stigma surrounding online education. Online universities are increasingly attaining accreditation, but most parents would prefer their children study in a reputable school. Without enough seats for everyone, universities have no choice but to raise their standards of admission. And this is where the problem begins.

Students must compete harder to get into universities that 30 years ago might have taken just about anyone. A high GPA, the best test scores, extracurricular activities, all of these things are now considered necessary for a student to break into the group of chosen ones.

The logical answer

With more and more pressure on students to succeed in order to get into university, secondary schools have upped their game as well. This is especially true in the United States where a school’s funding can depend on the success of their students, and an important metric is the percent of graduates who go on to university. This results in the pressure we talked about at the opening. Effectively what we’re witnessing is a wicked bottleneck effect. As the opening for universities narrows, the water pressure builds along the way, through secondary school. For a student to swim to the front of the pack, they need to go beyond their normal human limits.

Stimulants are giving students this extra push. While substances like modafinil are safe for people to use, and provide people with the energy and focus they need to achieve better results, we shouldn’t be asking what pills students should be taking. We should be asking whether they need to be taking pills in the first place, and what can be done to reduce pressure on a student body that is increasingly suffering from physical symptoms as a result of their intense life pressures.

02 May

Modafinil as a Treatment for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

Chronic fatigue syndrome, or CFS, is an illness then affects more than a million Americans and tens of millions more worldwide. Given modafinil’s propensity for solving narcolepsy, it stands to reason that it could also be useful as a treatment for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. If it makes regular people feel more awake, shouldn’t it help those who feel chronically tired?

What is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

Chronic fatigue can leave someone completely drained of energy and make a normal day feel like a marathon. What most people would consider an easy task, say going out to do just a few errands, can have CFS patients recovering for days or even weeks. Needless to say this can severely impact a person’s job prospects and overall quality of life. The root cause is undetermined, but CFS is often associated with poor biorhythms which make it difficult for people to sleep normally. Researchers have been searching for a solution, and there are some promising results.

The Curious Case of Mr C.

One notable study conducted in Newcastle upon Tyne with scientists Douglas Turkington, Daniel Hedwat, Iain Rider, and Allan H. Young worked with a patient known as “Mr. C” who was suffering from chronic fatigue and was often bed-bound for 2-3 weeks at a time. Mr. C had moments where he was able to have a normal life, until relapsing to a point that he could no longer work or leave the house due to his illness. Mr. C attempted courses of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy back in 1990 without any improvements. After over a decade the only things that improved was Mr. C’s sleep by using temazepam and zopiclone. By 1998 his condition had deteriorated so much that he became confined to a wheelchair and for the next 18 months he could barely even sit up or feed himself.

Modafinil for Mr C’s CFS

In 2000, Mr. C was finally able to see significant improvement that allowed him to at least enjoy a good quality of life. The improvements came when he was switched to clonazepam and modafinil at a dose of 200mcg. Mr. C’s fatigue levels dropped 300% in just a few months. After 13 years of suffering, Mr. C was finally able to return to a part-time job. Though his condition was not fully cured, this therapy with modafinil and clonazepam helped him to be able to finally have the energy to live a fairly normal life. He was no longer confined to a wheelchair or stuck in bed for weeks at a time.

Further trials over the years found modafinil to be well tolerated with patients and there were very few problems with any adverse drug reactions reported. These studies have been a boon for improving CFS-like symptoms caused by other conditions too, such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis. More trials are underway as we speak to determine if modafinil will be approved for CFS. As of right now it’s an off-label treatment so if you are suffering from a similar condition please consult a professional before using modafinil to treat your symptoms.